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Introduction to Containers, Kubernetes, and OpenShift Cognitive Class Answers IBM

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Module 1 – Understanding the Benefits of Containers

Question 1: Which of the following are benefits of containers? (Select all that apply)

  • Each container runs its own operating system (OS).
  • Like virtual machines (VMs), containers virtualize your infrastructure.
  • Each container is fully isolated and therefore secure.
  • Containers provide a standardized way to package and ship software.  

Question 2: What is an image?

  • A read-only file that contains the source code, libraries, and dependencies that are needed to run an application.
  • A YAML file with key/value pairs specifying the attributes of a container.
  • An isolated process running on a local or remote host with its own file system and networking.
  • A text file that contains the commands and settings that will run a container and the apps running in that container.

Question 3: In this sample Dockerfile, what does the FROM instruction do?

FROM ubuntu:18.04

COPY . /app

RUN make /app

CMD python /app/app.py

  • It defines the base image, which in this case is Ubuntu version 18.04.
  • It defines the minimum version of the operating system for the docker build command to use.
  • It defines the operating system on which the docker build command must be run.
  • It defines the virtualized host operating system on which the container will run.

Question 4: What does the docker build command do?

  • It uses a Dockerfile to create an image.
  • It creates a Dockerfile.
  • It creates a Docker app.
  • It uses an image to create a container.

Question 5: You can use the Docker COPY instruction to copy files from your local machine to a container.

  • True
  • False

Module 2 – Understanding Kubernetes Architecture

Question 1: Which of the following statements describes what Kubernetes is?

  • Open source software.
  • Container orchestration platform.
  • Widely available.
  • A tool that facilitates declarative management.
  • All of the above.  

Question 2: Which of the following components is part of the Kubernetes control plane?

  • The worker nodes.
  • The kubelet
  • etcd
  • The Kubernetes network proxy.

Question 3: Which of the following are Kubernetes objects?

  • B and C
  • Namespaces
  • ConfigMaps
  • Kubelets
  • Clusters

Question 4: Which Kubernetes object represents a single instance of processes running in a container?

  • Pod
  • Cluster
  • Deployment
  • Kubelet
  • ReplicaSet

Question 5: In this sample kubectl command, what does create do?

kubectl create -f nginx.yaml

  • It creates a YAML file named nginx.yaml.
  • It creates an object using the details in the nginx.yaml file.
  • It creates a new cluster using the details in the nginx.yaml file.
  • It creates a configuration file for an nginx web server.

Module 3 – Managing Applications with Kubernetes

Question 1: Which of the following statements describes what a ReplicaSet does? Select all that apply.

  • Maintains a stable set of Pods in a cluster, spinning up or deleting pods as needed.
  • Provides configuration details to Deployments.
  • Rolls out app changes in an automated and controlled manner.
  • Replicates a Deployment.
  • Autoscales an application.

Question 2: Which of the following Kubernetes objects are used to run applications? Select all that apply.

  • ReplicaSets
  • ConfigMaps
  • Secrets
  • Service bindings
  • ibmcloud CLI

Question 3: In this sample kubectl command, what does get deployments tell us? Select all that apply.

» kubectl get deployments

NAME   READY  UP-TO-DATE      AVAILABLE          AGE

Nginx-deploy    1/3         1              1             

3s                                                           

  • How many replicas of the application are ready.
  • The number of replicas that have been updated to the desired state.
  • How many replicas of the application are available.
  • How long the application has been running.
  • The Kubernetes namespace in which the Deployments live.

Question 4: Which of the following Kubernetes objects is used to store and manage sensitive information?

  • Service bindings
  • ConfigMaps
  • Secrets
  • ReplicaSets

Question 5: Which of the following can be used to create ConfigMaps? Select all that apply.

  • The kubectl add configmap command.
  • A file with key-value pairs.
  • A YAML configuration file.
  • Service bindings.
  • Horizontal Pod Autoscaler.

Module 4 – The Kubernetes Ecosystem

Question 1: Which of the following most accurately describes the relationship between Red Hat OpenShift and Kubernetes?

  • OpenShift packages Kubernetes with additional tooling to make developers and administrators more successful.
  • OpenShift is a tool in the Kubernetes that ecosystem that can be used in conjunction with Kubernetes to deploy cloud-native applications.
  • OpenShift can be deployed on a Kubernetes cluster to provide additional tooling such as logging, monitoring, and CI/CD.
  • OpenShift plugs into Kubernetes through custom resource definitions to provide build and other capabilities.

Question 2: Which of the following are Red Hat OpenShift build triggers? Select all that apply.

  • Webhook
  • Image change
  • Configuration change
  • Source-to-image
  • Docker build

 Question 3: Which of the following are possible with Istio service mesh? Select all that apply.

  • Routing traffic to two versions of a microservice.
  • Setting policies that stipulate which services can talk to each other.
  • Encrypting traffic between services.
  • Creating protocols for service to service communication.
  • Decouple applications into smaller, loosely coupled microservices.

Question 4: Which of the following are types of operators available in OperatorHub? Select all that apply.

  • Red Hat
  • Certified
  • Community
  • Custom controller
  • CRD

Question 5: Image streams can point to images in which of the following locations. Select all that apply.

  • Other image streams.
  • Public external registries.
  • Private external registries.
  • The OpenShift internal registry.
  • A Kubernetes cluster.

Final Exam Answers: Introduction to Containers, Kubernetes, and OpenShift Answers

Question 1: What does the Docker CLI build command do?

  • It builds an image from a Dockerfile.
  • It builds a microservice that will run in an image.
  • It builds a Dockerfile.
  • It builds a new container.
  • It builds a new cluster.

Question 2: In this sample Dockerfile, what does the FROM instruction do?

FROM alpine:3.9

COPY . /app

RUN make /app

CMD python /app/app.py

  • It defines the base image, which in this case is Alpine version 3.9.
  • It defines the virtualized host operating system on which the container will run.
  • It defines the minimum version of the operating system for the docker build command to use.
  • It defines the operating system on which the docker build command must be run.

Question 3: Containers include a guest operating system in every instance.

  • True
  • False  

Question 4: In this sample docker build command, what does the -t option do?

docker build -t my-app:v1 .

  • It gives the image the name “my-app” and the tag “v1”.
  • It indicates that the files used to build the image are located in the current working directory.
  • It indicates that the version “v1” of “my-app” should be used when building the image.
  • It tags the current working directory as the target location for the image being built.

Question 5: You use the docker push command to distribute an image to a registry.

  • True
  • False

Question 6: Which of the following statements describes what Kubernetes is? Select all that apply.

  • An all-inclusive platform as a service (PaaS).
  • A service for building source code.
  • A continuous delivery pipeline.
  • A solution for sharing and storing images.
  • A container orchestration platform.

Question 7: Which of the following are container runtimes? Select all that apply.

  • Docker
  • rocket
  • CRI-O
  • DRunner
  • Kubelet

Question 8: Which of the following Kubernetes objects can you use to segregate a cluster by team or project?

  • Namespaces
  • ConfigMaps
  • Kubernetes controllers
  • Volumes

Question 9: Which Kubernetes object provides updates to Pods and ReplicaSets?

  • Deployment
  • ConfigMap
  • Secret
  • Patch

Question 10: In this sample kubectl command, what does create do?

kubectl create -f pod.json

  • It creates a JSON file named pod.json.
  • It creates an object using the details in the pod.json file.
  • It creates a new cluster using the details in the pod.json file.
  • It creates a file that contains the configuration for a Kubernetes Pod.

Question 11: How are ReplicaSets often created?

  • One is automatically created for you when you create a Ddeployment.
  • Using the kubectl create replicaset command.
  • By adding a ReplicaSet: on flag to the deployment’s configuration file.
  • By Adding a ReplicaSet: on flag to the Dockerfile used to build the container image.

Question 12: Which of the following Kubernetes objects are used to run applications? Select all that apply.

  • Plugins
  • ConfigMaps
  • ResourceSets
  • Service bindings
  • Deployments

Question 13: Which of the following are used to provide ConfigMaps to Pods and Deployments? Select all that apply.

  • String literals
  • YAML configuration files
  • Container runtimes
  • Service bindings
  • Kubernetes schedulers

Question 14: What Kubernetes capabilities enable an application to increase the number of Pods based on traffic? Select all that apply.

  • Service binding
  • Horizontal Pod Autoscaler
  • kubectl autoscale command
  • Kubernetes traffic router
  • kubectl scale command

Question 15: What does the following command do?

kubectl get secrets –namespace=default

  • Retrieves the secrets in the “default” namespace.
  • Retrieves the IBM Cloud IAM API key for your Kubernetes cluster.
  • Retrieves the binding.password values for the services bound to your Kubernetes cluster.
  • Retrieves all the Secrets in your Kubernetes cluster.

 Question 16: What is the Istio service mesh used for? Select all that apply.

  • Control the flow of traffic between services.
  • Secure communication between services.
  • Encrypt Kubernetes secrets.
  • Observe and monitor services.

Question 17: Kubernetes is the sole project hosted by the CNCF.

  • True
  • False  

Question 18: OpenShift can be run in which of the following environments? Select all that apply.

  • On premise
  • Public cloud
  • Private cloud
  • Hybrid cloud

Question 19: What is the open source upstream version of OpenShift called?

  • OKD
  • Kubernetes open source
  • Istio
  • CRD
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS

Question 20: Which of the following build strategies injects application source code into builder images without having to write a Dockerfile?

  • Docker
  • Source-to-image
  • Custom build
  • Image stream
  • Webhook

Question 21: Image streams contain complete image data.

  • True
  • False

Introduction to Containers, Kubernetes, and OpenShift Cognitive Class Answers IBM

1 COMMENT

  1. TQ so much for the Q&A, appreciated. Hopefully you can do the following as well;
    1. Getting started with Microservices with Istio and IBM Cloud Kubernetes Service
    2. Beyond the Basics: Istio and IBM Cloud Kubernetes Service

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