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Fundamentals of Encryption & Quantum-Safe Techniques Cognitive Class Exam Quiz Answers

Fundamentals of Encryption & Quantum-Safe Techniques Cognitive Class Certification Answers

Question 1: According to the referenced report, what is the average cost of a data breach?

  • $300K
  • $10M
  • $1.87M
  • $4.35M

Question 2: What type of encryption uses the same key to both encrypt and decrypt the data?

  • Public key encryption
  • Private key encryption
  • Same key encryption
  • Single key encryption

Question 3: In what year was 56bit DES encryption broken?

  • 1998
  • 1978
  • 2000
  • 1988

Question 4: Encrypted data is also known as what?

  • Gibberish
  • Encrypted text
  • Cypher text
  • Plain text

Question 5: Why did a South African bank have to replace 12 Million bank cards?

  • An insider shared all of the card numbers and their associated PINs
  • Hackers stole their PIN numbers
  • Hackers stole the card numbers
  • An insider gained access to the bank’s master encryption key

Question 1: What is the gold standard for public key encryption today?

  • DES 512
  • RSA 4096
  • AES 256
  • RSA 2048

Question 2: Which of the 4 finalist algorithms as selected by NIST is hash based?

  • SPHINCS+
  • CRYSTALS-Dilithium
  • FALCON
  • CRYSTALS-Kyber

Question 3: True or false, AES 128 is currently considered to be Quantum-safe?

  • True
  • False

Question 4: How does Grover’s algorithm impact the strength of an encryption key?

  • It decreases it by 75%
  • It doubles it
  • It quadruples it
  • It cuts it in half

Question 5: A qubit is like doing what to a coin?

  • Cutting it in half
  • Doubling it
  • Spinning it
  • Flipping it

Question 1: Peak visibility is achieved by analyzing what?

  • Logs and metrics
  • Logs, metrics, and traces
  • Metrics and traces
  • Logs and traces

Question 2: Cryptographic agility requires which of the following?

  • An architecture that can evolve over time
  • The ability to suppprt both Quantum-safe algorithms and current algorithms
  • A web service based architecture
  • Quantum-safe algorithms

Question 3: Which of the following is NOT one of the ways to build a cryptographic inventory?

  • Run time tracing
  • Manual discovery
  • Static scanning
  • Extraction from key management tools

Question 4: What are the two types of data discovery?

  • Manual and Application
  • User and Automated
  • Manual and Automated
  • User and Application

Question 5: Y2Q is also known as what?

  • Q-Day
  • Quantum-safe
  • Years before Quantum computers
  • Years to Quantum computing

Question 1: Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in the encryption key management lifecycle?

  • Rotation
  • Reinstatement
  • Creation
  • Revocation

Question 2: The longer an encryption key is used, the more data it is likely protecting, which does what to the value of that key to attackers?

  • Negates it
  • Has no impact
  • Increases it
  • Decreases it

Question 3: What are the 3 main types of key management systems?

  • Native, local, and global
  • Localized, centralized, and decentralized
  • Native, non-native, and global
  • Native, localized, and centralized

Question 4: According to the referenced report, what is the average cost of a data breach?

  • $4.35M
  • $1.87M
  • $300K
  • $10M

Question 5: What can NOT happen if current cryptography (encryption) is broken?

  • Data becomes more secure
  • Change history
  • Launch extortion attacks
  • Create fake identities

Question 6: On January 15, 1977, the NBS adopted the first-ever Data Encryption Standard (DES) for the United States, and the world would soon follow. Who created this algorithm?

  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • NIST
  • IBM

Question 7: Digital signatures, like those used to sign legal documents online, are based on what?

  • Least trust coordination
  • Private keys
  • Quantum-safe algorithms
  • Public keys

Question 8: What does the HTTPS indicate in a website URL?

  • The website name has been encrypted
  • There are multiple websites with the same IP address
  • There are multiple websites with the same URL
  • The website is secured using SSL/TLS

Question 9: What is the gold standard for public key encryption today?

  • DES 512
  • RSA 4096
  • AES 256
  • RSA 2048

Question 10: Which of the 4 finalist algorithms does NIST recommend as the primary algorithm for digital signatures?

  • FALCON
  • CRYSTALS-Dilithium
  • SPHINCS+
  • CRYSTALS-Kyber

Question 11: Which of the 4 finalist algorithms as selected by NIST is the largest and slowest?

  • FALCON
  • CRYSTALS-Dilithium
  • SPHINCS+
  • CRYSTALS-Kyber

Question 12: Which algorithm can be used on a Quantum computer to crack today’s public key encryption?

  • Pythagorean Theorem
  • Mosca’s Theorem
  • Shor’s Algorithm
  • Grover’s Algorithm

Question 13: A 4 qubit machine can represent how many bit combinations at the same time?

  • 16
  • 4
  • 1024
  • 1

Question 14: According the Michele Mosca, what is the probability that public key encryption will be broken by the year 2031?

  • 1 in 1000
  • 1 in 5
  • 1 in 7
  • 1 in 2

Question 15: Today’s most widespread encryption protocols rely on which of the following to provide cybersecurity?

  • VPNs
  • The memory limits of classical computers
  • Firewalls
  • The computational limits of classical computers

Question 16: Which of the following is NOT one of the ways to build a cryptographic inventory?

  • Run time tracing
  • Manual discovery
  • Static scanning
  • Extraction from key management tools

Question 17: A DevSecOps model allows security teams to do what?

  • Change data encryption throughout the software development lifecycle
  • Implement and monitor data encryption throughout the software development lifecycle
  • Monitor data encryption throughout the software development lifecycle
  • Implement data encryption throughout the software development lifecycle

Question 18: What open source project provides a common API today for testing and prototyping?

  • The Quantum Safe Security (QSS) project
  • The Open Quantum Safe (OQS) project
  • The Post Quantum Safe (PQS) project
  • The Quantum Security (QS) project

Question 19: Which of the following is NOT part of a cryptographic inventory?

  • Algorithm
  • Key Length
  • Owner
  • Key

Question 20: Organizations can examine their hardware security modules to find encryption information. What approach to finding cryptography is this considered to be?

  • Static scanning
  • Run time tracing
  • Automatic
  • Manual

Question 21: In order to be valuable, a crptographic inventory needs to be ________.

  • Compiled into the application
  • Shared with the CSO
  • Appended to the data catalog
  • Kept up to date

Question 22: Which of the 4 milestones to becoming Quantum-safe can be started today?

  • None
  • Only Preparation
  • Preparation, Discovery, and Transformation
  • Preparation and Discovery

Question 23: As you add qubits to a Quantum computer, it’s power increases how?

  • Incrementally
  • Proportionally
  • Fractionally
  • Exponentially

Question 24: Which of the following is NOT one of the states that data can be in?

  • In use
  • At rest
  • In motion
  • On the cloud

Question 25: Which of the following is most well known for securing data at rest today?

  • GDPR encryption
  • RSA encryption
  • SSL/TLS encryption
  • AES encryption

Introduction to Fundamentals of Encryption & Quantum-Safe Techniques

Encryption is the process of converting plaintext data into a form that cannot be easily understood by unauthorized parties. It plays a crucial role in securing communications, data storage, and various other aspects of modern technology. However, with the advent of quantum computing, traditional encryption methods are at risk of being broken due to the potential computational power of quantum computers. This has led to the development of quantum-safe encryption techniques, also known as post-quantum cryptography.

Here’s an overview of both traditional encryption and quantum-safe techniques:

Traditional Encryption:

  1. Symmetric Encryption: In symmetric encryption, the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. Popular algorithms include AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and DES (Data Encryption Standard).
  2. Asymmetric Encryption: Asymmetric encryption uses a pair of keys: a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption. RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) are widely used asymmetric encryption algorithms.
  3. Hash Functions: Hash functions are cryptographic algorithms that generate a fixed-size hash value from input data. They are commonly used for verifying data integrity and creating digital signatures. Popular hash functions include SHA-256 and MD5 (though the latter is now considered insecure for most purposes).

Quantum-Safe Techniques:

Quantum-safe techniques aim to resist attacks from quantum computers, which can quickly solve certain mathematical problems that traditional encryption relies on. These techniques often leverage mathematical problems that are believed to be hard even for quantum computers to solve. Some prominent approaches include:

  1. Lattice-Based Cryptography: Lattice-based cryptography relies on the hardness of certain lattice problems, such as the Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) or the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem. Examples of lattice-based schemes include NTRUEncrypt and Ring-LWE.
  2. Hash-Based Cryptography: Hash-based cryptography relies on the properties of cryptographic hash functions. One example is the Merkle signature scheme, which uses hash trees to create digital signatures.
  3. Code-Based Cryptography: Code-based cryptography relies on the difficulty of decoding certain error-correcting codes. The McEliece cryptosystem is a well-known example of a code-based encryption scheme.
  4. Multivariate Polynomial Cryptography: This approach is based on the hardness of solving systems of multivariate polynomial equations. Examples include the Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar (UOV) scheme.
  5. Isogeny-Based Cryptography: Isogeny-based cryptography relies on the properties of mathematical structures called elliptic curves. The Supersingular Isogeny Diffie-Hellman (SIDH) protocol is a notable example.

These quantum-safe techniques are still under active development and evaluation to ensure their security and practicality in real-world applications. As the threat of quantum computing advances, transitioning to quantum-safe encryption is becoming increasingly important for securing sensitive data in the long term.

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