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CS401: Operating Systems Certification Exam Answers

Operating systems (OS) are the backbone of modern computing, serving as the intermediary between hardware and software. They manage computer hardware and provide services for applications, ensuring smooth interaction between the user and the machine. Here’s a brief overview of some popular operating systems:

  1. Windows: Developed by Microsoft, Windows is one of the most widely used operating systems for personal computers. It offers a user-friendly interface and supports a vast array of software and hardware.
  2. macOS: macOS is the operating system developed by Apple for its line of Macintosh computers. Known for its sleek design and seamless integration with other Apple devices, macOS provides a robust environment for creative professionals and everyday users alike.
  3. Linux: Linux is a Unix-like open-source operating system kernel that powers a wide range of systems, from servers and supercomputers to embedded devices and smartphones. Various distributions (distros) of Linux, such as Ubuntu, Fedora, and Debian, package the Linux kernel with additional software to create complete operating systems.
  4. Android: Developed by Google, Android is a Linux-based operating system primarily designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. It has become the dominant OS in the mobile market, powering devices from numerous manufacturers.
  5. iOS: iOS is Apple’s mobile operating system exclusively for its iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch devices. Known for its stability, security, and seamless integration with other Apple products, iOS offers a curated app ecosystem through the App Store.
  6. Unix: Unix is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that originated in the 1960s at AT&T Bell Labs. It has significantly influenced the development of subsequent operating systems, including Linux and macOS.

CS401: Operating Systems Exam Quiz Answers

  • Less than half of the address range of a 32-bit OS
  • Over 10 times that of a 32-bit OS
  • 1024mb
  • 4 billion 32-bit address ranges
  • Batch processing
  • Punched cards
  • Multiprogramming
  • Simplistic multiprocessors
  • Operating Systems
  • The system bus
  • Application programs
  • Memory stack
  • Unix
  • Linux
  • Microsoft Windows
  • IOCS
Operating System Saylor Academy 1
  • The operating system is missing.
  • The arrows between users and hardware should be removed.
  • The lines should not have double arrowheads.
  • The lines between applications and hardware should be removed.
  • Terminate the process.
  • Restore the state of the thread to run next.
  • Wait for further instructions.
  • Flush all registers to disk.
  • Hardware architecture
  • Memory structure
  • System bus
  • Execution context
  • Set of processes
  • Unit of execution which belongs to a process
  • Non-traceable unit of execution
  • Unit of execution which can belong to multiple processes
  • Processes are independent, while threads are part of the same process and cooperate closely.
  • Threads can only access a small area of memory, while processes can access a larger area of memory.
  • Processes can communicate with each other, while threads cannot communicate or share information with other threads.
  • A process can have at most one thread, which inherits all attributes from the process.
  • The ability of a system to handle requests sequentially
  • The ability of an operating system to handle multiple tasks simultaneously
  • The capability of an operating system to update itself
  • The process by which user rights are managed
  • Remove the items and store them
  • Remove the items and process them
  • Add more items to the data structure
  • Remove items
  • Synchronization constraints
  • Design flaws
  • Data sinks
  • Data flows
  • To ensure faster operation of the system
  • To avoid deadlock
  • To avoid a system crash
  • To maintain integrity of the system
  • Internal, external
  • Explicit, implicit
  • Implicit, explicit
  • Expensive, inexpensive
  • Monitor
  • Producer
  • Consumer
  • Philosopher
  • Writers can co-exist with other writers in the critical section.
  • Writers cannot enter the critical section.
  • Writers must have exclusive access to the critical section.
  • Writers can be in the critical section with a finite number of readers.
  • Minimize wait time.
  • Maximize throughput.
  • Consume the most memory.
  • Acheive fairness.
ProcessArrival TimeCPU Burst
P1010
P238
P357
P4512
Operating System Saylor Academy 2
  • First Come First Served
  • Priority
  • Shortest Job First
  • Round Robin
  • CPU burst
  • I/O burst
  • Sun burst
  • Memory cycle
  • Shortest Job Last
  • Round Robin
  • Shortest Time Remaining
  • Shortest Job First
  • Removes a process from the wait queue
  • Adds a process to the wait queue
  • Removes all processes
  • Inserts a process into a queue
Operating System Saylor Academy 3
  • A race conditions
  • A round robin conditions
  • A deadlock conditions
  • A drydock conditions
  • Terminate a thread or process, forcing it to give up resources.
  • Preempt resources without killing it off.
  • Shut down the system and restart.
  • Rollback actions of deadlocked threads or processes.
  • Mutual exclusion
  • Hold and wait
  • Non-preemption
  • Rectangular wait
Operating System Saylor Academy 4
  • Resource R2 has been allocated to only one process, P3.
  • Process P3 must wait for process P2 to be finished with resource R3 before it can use this resource.
  • Process P1 is waiting on resource R1, which has been allocated to process P2. Process P2 is waiting for resource R3, which is currently allocated to process P1. Thus, there is a circular wait condition.
  • There is no mutual exclusion present.
  • The Banker’s Algorithm allocates resources dynamically to prevent deadlock.
  • The Banker’s Algorithm brokers loans of resources between processes.
  • The Banker’s Algorithm has never been proven to work correctly.
  • The Banker’s Algorithm is best used when a large amount of memory is available.
  • Relocation
  • Translation
  • Iteration
  • Transliteration
  • Buffer overflow and logical mapping
  • Memory allocation and subdiving memory for multiple processes
  • Blocking and deallocating failed memory
  • Memory protection and buffer overflow
  • Hardware memory management
  • Application memory management
  • Printer memory management
  • Operating system memory management
  • How to request more memory from the owner of the system
  • How to allocate memory to processes and reallocate it when it is no longer needed
  • Fragmenting physical memory
  • Only virtual memory management
  • Ram is used to store information multiple times.
  • Frequently used items are stored in RAM, while less used items are stored on disk. When needed, items from disk are brought into memory.
  • Disk is directly mapped to memory addresses.
  • Extremely fast disk is mapped to memory addresses.
  • It finds the largest free space that can accommodate the request.
  • It finds the first free space that can accommodate the request.
  • It finds the first free space that will exactly accommodate the request.
  • It finds the first free space irregardless of whether the request will fit in the space or not.
  • 204
  • 324
  • 169
  • 523
  • 204
  • 324
  • 109
  • 456
  • Sequential access
  • Parallel access
  • Content-based access
  • Random access
  • Errors and omissions
  • Fraud and theft
  • System failure
  • Malicious hackers
  • Marconi Algorithm
  • Fault Tolerent Principle
  • Security Principle
  • Principle of Least Privilege
  • Trojan horse
  • Worm
  • Virus
  • Modular bot
  • Trojan horse
  • Virus
  • Worm
  • Logic bomb
  • Role-based access control
  • Static access control
  • Dynamic access control
  • Rule-based access control
  • Swellcast
  • Multicast
  • Avicast
  • Plexicast
  • Packets
  • Bits
  • Packages
  • Bytes
  • Wide-area network
  • Local-area network
  • Metropolitan area network
  • Global network
  • 4
  • 7
  • 16
  • 5
  • 5
  • 7
  • 12
  • 3
  • Application programs
  • Translators
  • Buffering
  • Layering
  • Physical schema
  • Cabling specifications
  • Topology
  • Lineage
  • An operating system manages a computer system’s resources.
  • An operating system is not a necessary software component of all computer systems.
  • An operating system acts as an interface between hardware and application programs.
  • An operating system provides a set of services to users.
  • There is an elapsed time slice.
  • A higher priority thread is ready to run.
  • A running thread needs to wait.
  • A running thread is stuck in a loop.
  • Blocking
  • Inter-process communication
  • Mapping processes directly to hardware
  • Select-based programming

  • Moaning philosophers problem
  • Producer-consumer problem
  • Readers-writers problem
  • Dining philosophers problem
  • Two processes compete for the same resource at the same time.
  • An operation depends upon the ordering of when individual processes are run.
  • Two processes depend on each other to release resources that each need.
  • The cpu is processing faster than memory.
  • Shared memory
  • Semaphores
  • Morse code
  • Shared files
  • They are not expensive to implement.
  • They can be written only in Java.
  • They impose deliberate constraints that help programmers avoid error.
  • They increase programmer productivity.
  • When a process is deadlocked.
  • When a process switches from running to waiting state.
  • When a process terminates.
  • When a process switches from waiting to ready.
  • Recover from deadlock
  • Terminate all processes
  • Detect quadratic process events
  • Detect circular chains of requests
  • Has low memory
  • Is in a state of deadlock
  • Lacks sufficient privileges
  • Allocates resources up to the maximum for each process
  • Follows a strict set of rules to prevent deadlock
  • Changes the rules so that processes will not make requests which will cause deadlock
  • Never works correctly
  • Causes only one process to execute on the processor at one time
  • LRU
  • OPT
  • NRU
  • Best Fit
  • Memory exchange
  • Page fault
  • Ram shift
  • Memory optimization
  • Wasted time
  • Memory mash
  • Thrashing
  • Trashing
Operating System Saylor Academy 5
  • Indexed
  • Chained
  • Uniform
  • Contiguous
  • An integrity domain
  • A protection domain
  • A domain fences
  • A protection grids
  • The maximum size of an individual process
  • The number of threads that can execute at once
  • The size of the cache
  • The link to the DMA controller
  • A single sequential thread of execution.
  • A current state.
  • Exclusive control of one computer component.
  • Having a set of system resources associated with it.
  • Ready threads
  • Processes
  • Waiting threads
  • Terminated threads
  • To keep the CPU free as much as possible
  • To decide which threads and/or processes should be given access to resources from moment to moment
  • To flush out internal caches to disk when they are full
  • To schedule backup jobs for the CPI
Operating System Saylor Academy 6
  • Shortest Job First
  • First Come First Served
  • Round Robin
  • Priority
  • It can be terminated by any other process.
  • It runs until it terminates or willingly gives up control.
  • It never terminates.
  • It always only lasts one CPU burst.
  • Fragments
  • Holes
  • Vortexes
  • Parity bits
  • Allowing each process to have multiple simulated memories
  • Allowing each process to have more than one page fault at the same time
  • Allowing each process to spawn into subprocesses
  • Allowing physical memory to be split up
  • Shortest Seek Time First
  • First Come First Served
  • SCAN and C-SCAN
  • Look and C-Look
Operating System Saylor Academy 7
  • Contiguous
  • Chained
  • Indexed
  • Hash key
  • Language
  • Prototype
  • Protocol
  • Handshake
  • TCP/IP
  • OSI
  • Pyramid Reference Model
  • Five Layers Model
  • Logical blocks
  • Named files
  • Page tables
  • Virtual memory
  • Rotational latency and cache size
  • Seek time and pause time
  • Seek time and rotational latency
  • Rotational latency and disk arm length
  • Threats to personal privacy
  • Malicious code
  • Loss of physical infrastructure
  • Errors and omissions
  • They were as good as today’s operating systems.
  • Generally, they ran only one job at a time.
  • They could accommodate many users at once.
  • Operating systems did not exist in the 1950’s.
  • Fetch cycle
  • Instruction cycle
  • Execution cycle
  • CPU cycle
  • Cache
  • Heap
  • Critical section
  • Stack
  • The way that the system clock is managed
  • The way that the computer starts up
  • Relationships among any number of events
  • Software vs. hardware timing
  • You cannot read the current value of a semaphore.
  • A semaphore can be negative whereas an integer cannot be.
  • When a thread decrements the semaphore, if the result is negative, the thread blocks itself and cannot continue until another thread increments the semaphore.
  • When a thread increments the semaphore, if there are other threads waiting, one of the waiting threads gets unblocked.
  • Chaos
  • Deadlock
  • Controlled order
  • Stack overflow
  • Page table
  • Disk management
  • Naming
  • Reliability
  • Industrial espionage
  • Loss of physical and infrastructure support
  • Malicious code
  • Hackers

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